Birth defects are problems that occur when babies develop in the uterus. Most birth defects occur during the first 3 months of pregnancy. Birth defects can affect the body’s appearance, the way you work, or both. Some birth defects, such as cleft lip or neural tube defects, are structural problems that are easy to see. Other diseases, such as heart disease, are discovered by special tests. Birth defects can range from mild to severe. How a birth defect affects a child’s life depends primarily on what organ or part of the body is involved and the severity of the defect.
What are the causes of Birth defects?
1: Genetics or hereditary
3: Chromosomal problems
4: Exposure to certain drugs during pregnancy etc.
What is Down Syndrome?
Down syndrome is a genetic condition that causes mild to severe physical developmental problems. People with Down syndrome are born with extra chromosomes. A chromosome is a group of genes, and your body depends on whether you have the right number. Down syndrome causes this extra chromosome to cause a variety of problems that affect you, both mentally and physically. Down syndrome is a lifelong condition. It can’t be cured, but doctors know about it more than ever. Getting proper treatment early can make a big difference if your child has it as it can help them live a full and meaningful life.
Down syndrome is not inherited. This occurs due to an error in cell division during the early development of the embryo. Translocation Down Syndrome can be passed down from parent to child. However, only about 3-4% of children with Down syndrome have translocations, and only a small fraction of them inherit translocations from one parent.
When balanced translocations are inherited, the mother or father has multiple rearranged genetic material from chromosome 21 to another, with no extra genetic material. This means that he or she has no signs or symptoms of down Syndrome but can tell the children an imbalanced transpose and cause Down Syndrome in the child. The last thing an expecting parent wants to hear is that there is a problem with an unborn child or baby. Most birth defects cannot be prevented, but some measures can be taken to mitigate their environmental impact. Always discuss concerns with your healthcare provider and follow instructions on screening tests, drugs, etc.